), The identity of the unknown (it is one of the metals you tested) (The answer depends on which chemical the teacher chose to use for the "unknown solution. This means that it has a smaller wavelength than violet light, a higher frequency, and thus contains more energy than violet light, as well as all other colors of visible light.). The colors should be ordered like a rainbow, from blue on one side to red on the other. A blue object looks blue because it reflects blue light and absorbs all other colors. Chemical engineers use this low-tech and very reliable flame test to identify an element based on the color it emits when placed in a flame. Some of the chemicals can cause skin and eye irritation, and are hazardous if ingested. Design a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations. Draw the spectral lines for the indicated elements. units and these again are bundled into subject areas. We did a flame test lab for metals in salts such as lithium, barium, strontium, calcium, etc. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. <> 12), Understand the mathematical principles associated with the science of chemistry. Using this equation, and nlower = 2, calculate the wavelengths associated with each of the visible transitions (the Balmer series). stream "), Show the calculations for the preparation of the three solutions. This is particularly relevant in astronomy. This completed assignment will be due in class on Monday/Tuesday (1/30, 1/31). Part One: Flame Tests (As an option, this could be a demo rather than a student activity) When solutions of metals are heated in a Bunsen burner flame, they give off characteristic colours. Materials: Bunsen burner Wooden splints (9 per group) Solutions (1.0 mol/L) of the following metal salts lithium chloride barium chloride strontium chloride calcium chloride copper(II)chloride sodium chloride potassium chloride an unknown metal chloride solution Procedure: Obtain 8 wooden splints that have been soaking in the metal salt solutions (Why is soaking the splints important?). How do these values compare to the ones you observed for hydrogen in Part 2 of this experiment? Recall that energy is proportional to frequency, while frequency is inversely proportional to wavelength. The color of the flame test results from the combination of those wavelengths, The emission spectrum is a pattern formed by all of the possible wavelengths and frequencies. The visible light spectrum and corresponding colors-to-wavelengths in nanometers (nm). Why do the gas-discharge tubes need to be turned “on” before a color can be seen? To relate these results to the types of electronic transitions occurring in these elements. Which element produced the largest number of lines? Based on the results of your experiment, what metal is found in the unknown? Gas discharge tubes for hydrogen, helium, mercury, neon, argon, krypton, and diffraction grating. Complete the data table below and then draw the color lines in the spectrum boxes that follow. In some situations it behaves like waves, while in others it behaves like particles. � The color of a solid object depends on the colors of light that it reflects. Is light composed of waves or of particles? This unit's challenge question includes aspects of environmental engineering (effect of pollution on the Earth's ozone layer and consequences to public health) and biomedical engineering (use of nanoparticles in medical technologies). Flame-test results for some metals are shown in the table that follows. The electrons in these metals then made transitions from (low, high) energy levels to (low, high) energy levels, resulting in the (absorption, emission) of energy as (electricity, heat, EM radiation). Materials: scientific calculator, electronic device, pencil/pen, and chemistry binder. Just before the activity begins, pour out the water and rinse the splints with clean water. After a short amount of time the electrons drop back into lower energy states, releasing a photon to carry off the extra energy. Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants. ), Of visible light, what color is lowest in energy? However, when electrons subsequently return from higher energy levels to lower energy levels, energy is released predominantly in the form of electromagnetic radiation.

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